Mike Davis

Planet of Slums


Teddy Cruz




Leading authority on slums in Mexico City


The UN-Habitat’s Strategy for the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goal 7, Target 11


The United Nations Millennium Declaration recognizes the dire circumstances of the world’s urban poor. It articulates the commitment of member States to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by the year 2020 (Target 11, Millennium Development Goal No. 7). As large as 100 million may seem, however, it is only 10 per cent of the present worldwide slum population, which, left unchecked, will multiply threefold to 3 billion by the year 2050 (see Figure 1). Target 10 calls for the reduction by half of the number without sustainable access to safe drinking water.

The work of UN-HABITAT, as the focal point for implementation of the Habitat Agenda, the Declaration on Cities and other Human Settlements in the New Millennium and the Millennium Development Goal 7, targets 10 and 11, has drawn the agency and its partners in government, regional and local authorities, civil society, and the private sector increasingly closer to the lives of the urban poor. And although UN-HABITAT’s beneficiaries are the urban poor, its key audience remains the policy-maker at every level with the power and authority to tackle urban poverty by providing resources, by removing barriers and by ensuring their human and civil rights.



According to the UN-HABITAT website: “The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-HABITAT, is the United Nations agency for human settlements. It is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all. “Towns and cities are growing today at unprecedented rates setting the social, political, cultural and environmental trends of the world, both good and bad. In 1950, one-third of the world’s people lived in cities. Just 50 years later, this rose to one-half and will continue to grow to two-thirds, or 6 billion people, by 2050. Cities are now home to half of humankind.

“Cities are the hubs of much national production and consumption – economic and social processes that generate wealth and opportunity. But they also create disease, crime, pollution, poverty and social unrest. In many cities, especially in developing countries, slum dwellers number more than 50 per cent of the population and have little or no access to shelter, water, and sanitation, education or health services. It is essential that policy­makers understand the power of the city as a catalyst for national development. Sustainable urbanisation is one of the most pressing challenges facing the global community in the 21st century.

“UN-HABITAT’s programmes are designed to help policy-makers and local communities get to grips with the human settlements and urban issues and find workable, lasting solutions. The organization’s mandate is outlined in the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, Habitat Agenda, Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, the Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium, and Resolution 56/206. UN-HABITAT’s work is directly related to the United Nations Millennium Declaration, particularly the goals of member States to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by the year 2020, Target 11, Millennium Development Goal No. 7, and Target 10 which calls for the reduction by half of the number without sustainable access to safe drinking water.

“UN-HABITAT’s strategic vision is anchored in a four-pillar strategy aimed at attaining the goal of Cities without Slums. This strategy consists of advocacy of global norms, analysis of information, field-testing of solutions and financing. These fall under the four core functions assigned to the agency by world governments – monitoring and research, policy development, capacity building and financing for housing and urban development.”

Slum Dwellers International

The National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF) in India was established by Jockin Arputham when he fought on behalf of a community of 70,000 to appeal a 1976 eviction order. In the 1980s NSDF formed an alliance with Mahila Milan and SPARC, and this alliance became the basis for establishing Slum Dwellers International in 1996.


In the category of financing, we should definitely look into the Grameen Bank, probably the most successful microlending institution in the world.  It was founded by economist Muhammad Yunus, who won a Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.  He started the Grameen Foundation, which “combines the power of microfinance, technology and innovative solutions<!––> to defeat global poverty.”  The loans are often used to help women in undeveloped nations start small businesses.  Though the loans tend to not be related to design and community development, there may be a framework there to study.

More info available at http://www.grameen-info.org/